Ritcha chi·sku jolrangon, American Baptist Mission Society, Indiani Salgro-Salaram jolrango kam ka·na a·bachengaha. Mongsongbate Assamni Goalpara aro Nowgong districtrango kam ka·anio mission a·barangkoba a·bachengataha. Uamang bilsi 25 mangna rake kam ka·oba aro dontonggija tikkelaniko dakoba on·titisan biterangko nikaiaha. Indioba, Omed aro Ramkeni kam ka·anio Garo Hillso donggipa Garo manderangnade Kristianrangni re·baaniara dal·batsranggipa chu·sokatanirangoni mingsa ong·baaha. Missionary E.G. Phillips chang·sao indake agana: Garo Hillsona Kristian toromni a·bachengani gimin agannade skanggipa sakgni an·pilchenggipa Omed W. Momin aro Ramke W. Mominni gimin janapjaode ong·nan man·jawachim. Maina uamangni rake kam ka·ani aro on·kangani biteni giminsa, Dr. Miles Bronsonni jakchi 1867 bilsini April 14 tariko A·chik A·songo Skanggipa Mondoliko songaha jeon Omed W. Mominko pamong ordain ka·e mondolini skanggipa pamongba ong·aha; uan Rajasimlao ong·aha.

Kristian Ong·na Skang A·chikrangni Tanga

William Carey

Garorangara, salgro-salaram a·dokrango donggipa gipin jatrang gitan, 2-3 chasongrangonin gipinrangchi sinjetanirangko man·engachim, mongsongbate ua jolrango donggipa gipin jatni sason ka·giparangni napdraani somairangoni iarang ong·baaha. William Carey Garorangni gimin indake agana, ‘uamangni agananiara kreng kreng rake aganani ku·rang, ro·ongo rakgipa matsrambegipa silni totkingani gam·a gita ong·achim.’ Bimangni kri, Garorangara jattangoni ong·gijagipa manderangni ning·ode dongna sikjachim. Badiaba somairangode jensalo kajina gilgiparang uamangni kajinako drae on·china aganon, uamang an·tangtangari jrip dongna man·jachim; batesa uamangko so·ote aro skorangko sote uamangni dongram songona ra·angrongachim. 1852 bilsio Lord Dalhousie indake agana:

“...Indiba ia ka∙namgijagipa jat bamaba bamja, kamna jakkalnaba jakkaltoja, knaaba knatimja batesa dal·bea gimaaniko aro kenbegnigipa sianikosan ra·baigen. An·ching uamangko bamatna ine bilakgipa sipai ko·tokrangko watate kam ka·oba, an·ching kam aro jotton ka·anirang indinari ong·gramaigen. An·ching, salgro-salaram a·dokjolo donggipa a·brini manderangko bamatna jotton ka·oba uarangba gamchatani dongja…uni gimin, anga an·tangde indake aganna ska, jedakeba gimik biaponikon uamangko ma·eke mang·kimae galsrangon nambatgen. Ia tik ong·gijagipa so·otrakgipa manderangko jena kingking an·ching rim·e uamangko sastri on·kujana dipetde uamang indaken gipinrangni kosakoba ra·gopna jotton ka·angkugen…”1

Ia on·gimin hukumrangko British government ra·chakan baksa kam ka·on adita chu·ongnikaniko man·aha aro ja·mano, agangimin gitan Garorangni ia nakatatgimin obostarangni kosako jrimgipa aro rakgipa sastiko mesoke uamangni salantio janggi tanganio bal gataha. Unikoa uamang namgijagipa bewalrangko, dakanirangko galaha aro governmentni kosako mikkangchi indake daktaijawaha ine ku·rachakaha.

Garorangko Kristian Ong·atna Kam Ka·chakata
Professor Lt. L. D. Shira David Scott-ni gimin indake agana:

“A·chik manderang David Scottko gualna man·ja, jean Indiani Salgro-Salaram a·dok gimikni British Commissioner ong·achim aro uan bang·a namarangko on·aha. Ua, A·chikrangni Kristian toromko ra·anina indakpile dakna man·jaoba, indiba uni tikkelani baksa chu·gimik on·kange kam ka·china Americani missionaryrangko okamaha.”<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-2-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="1" oldtitle="Lindrind D. Shira, A·chik A·songona Nama Katta Sokbaani,” First Edition: Tura, n.p., 1991, p87." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-1">2

1816 bilsio, jensalo David Scott Garorangni a·arangni gimin kam ka·china watatako man·ani somaio ua Garorangko grongchengaha. Ua kosakbatgipaoni on·gimin hukumrango pangchake ia ka·namgijagipa jatrangni gisepo kam ka·na a·bachengaha aro rang·sanan skatang dakaigipa uamangni ka·tongrangni kosako cheaha. Dakgrikani aro an·chi ong·atanide Garorangna tom·tomaniko aro namgniko ra·bana man·jawa, indiba gisikni gita Kristian bebera·anio dal·roroaniko on·na missionary schoolrangko kuliosa namgipa ong·gen ine ua nikaha. Missionary ong·e ka·namgijagipa jatko bamatna kam ka·a gita aro Garorangko Kristian ong·atna uni dakdilani bewalrangchi dakjaode captain ong·ani ba songdongpaigipa mande mangmang ong·achide dingtangatna man·jawa ine uaba bebera·giparangoni saksa ong·paaha. Bon·chotao, David Scott an·tangan schoolko kulie A·chikrangonikon maiba kamna rakkie kam ka·atna nangnikaha. Ia kamna ine ua an·tangni tangka-paisaonikon jakkalna, aro iani gimin Mr. M. B. Bailey govermentni Secretaryna uni chitti seatgipao agana:

“Angade chu·ongnikaiaha maina maming gipin cholrangko dakeba namkamatna amjawa, anga an·tangde Moravian missionaryrangoni jerangan torom baksa jakkaltogipa kamrangko skiena man·gen uamangoniko saksa ba sakgniko tarina nangnika. Government uamangko kam ka·na mangmang on·oba, anga an·tangni korostangchin dakna skani gisik gnang.”3

Ia kan·dikgipa mol·molanian Government Secretaryni namnikpaaniko man·aha aro iarangko chanchian baksa, American Mission Board sakgni missionaryrangko sandina a·bachengaha. Indiba rasong grie, uamang sengsobeoba iako dakanio chu·sokjaha maina Boardni segatako man·gimin missionaryrang uamangko nichaksoanio chu·ongnikatna man·jaha. Minggipinara, Captain (ja·mano General ong·anga) Francis Jenkins, jean Assamo Bengalni Governor Generalni Agent aro Commissioner ong·engachim, uaba uni gisik nanganiko golpoaha aro Garorangko niate 1847 bilsio Goalparao schoolko kuliaha. David Scott gitan, uni miksonganiba Garo chadamberangko schoolo skina, aro ja·mano skie on·echina uamangni manderangona watatpilna nangnikaha.

Omed-Ramke Mamasani Atchiram aro Skangni Salrang
Omed W. Momin was born in 1832 at a tiny hamlet of Watrepara4 situated atop a hill overlooking Rajasimla village. This hamlet was inhabited by blood-thirsty savage Garos even before 1812.5 From his young days, Omed was ‘the natural leader, impetuous and forceful.’ Though he was born in the wild, he developed an interest in reading and writing as he visited the nearby market where he found a government interpreter speaking fluent Bengali.6 Omed, being the older of the two and by virtue of his status as the uncle, was always ever caring and loving towards his nephew Ramke. He made it a point to share with Ramke whatever knowledge or skill he had acquired.

Ramke W. Momin was born in 1838 after five or six years of Omed (his uncle) at the same place. Ramke, a boy of 11 or 12 years old, was for a time prevented by his step-father, who wanted his help on the jhum cultivation more than his education. While a boy, he believed in the demons and was diligent in always trying to overcome them, often trapping wild birds to sacrifice to them.7 Ramke, even before he knew Christ as his Savior, was very religious and tried his best to live true to his indigenous faith.8

Uamangni Schoolo Poraianirang
Hoping to gain some influence and control over the tribe, the Government had, in 1847, started a school at Goalpara for Garo boys. Providence was leading them, though they may have suspected little how.9 One day in 1847, the news was aired at the Rangjuli market by beating the drums that the Government wanted Garo boys for a school at Goalpara and would feed, clothe, teach them, and turn them out as great men. This news spread to the neighboring hills even to where Omed and Ramke lived.10 Along with a bunch of young Garos, Omed and Ramke also enrolled themselves for formal school education at Goalpara. After a while it was thought advisable to enlarge their ideas by taking them in a steamer at Government expense, to visit Gauhati. A regiment of Sepoy was stationed there and proved a great attraction to the Garo boys. At first, Jongrin and Ronja were enlisted, and Omed was asked to join in, but he refused. But before Omed could complete his schooling; he was forcefully enlisted as a policeman and stayed behind at Gauhati; however, Ramke went back to school to continue his studies at Goalpara.11

Kristian Toromni Gimin Agangrika aro Napbola
1847-1867 bilsirangara Garo Hillso Mondoliko a·bachenganina namedake tarisoani ong·chongmota ine nikgen. Ia sal-somairango, an·tangtangni u·iani gadango pangchake nambatao kam ka·ahaoba, iamang sakgnian Garorangni siani ja·mano atchitaianiko bebera·anio kusi ong·jachim. Chonaonin, Omed aro Ramke ia toromni gimin ka·oksie am·engachim aro jringjrotna kusiniko man·gen ine ku·rachakanikon torom ge·saoni ge·gipinona sandiengachim.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-12-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="8" oldtitle="Milton S. Sangma, “Advent of Christianity into Garo Hills”, in Rajasimla Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, 1867-1992, p3." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-8">12

1857 bilsio, Omed sipai ong·e kamko ka·engon dikdiksana Gauhatio rakkiako man·gipa British officerni bungalowko nitimna seokako man·aha. Bungalowko nitimengon, Britishni sasonni ning·o ong·e, ua namen kakkekbegipachim aro simsakbee sipaini kamko ka·e nokkrao ga·ake donggipa gitcham lekka bichitrangkomangba kolame ra·na gisiko draatako man·oba dakgija dongaha. Salsao nokko itroktimgipa saksa nokkrako a·palchinapak itrokangengon, uarangoni lekka chongipa kingsako sriksrik kolame an·tangni cholao sikataha. Uan Bengali tract kingsa jean “Apatti Nashak”13 minggipa ong·achim, uni giminan ning·tue u·ina ske dongengon ua jekon ru·utaoni gisiktango am·engachim uko nikaha aro Omed uko walni bako tusigija poraiaha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-14-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="10" oldtitle="K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya, p27." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-10">14 Ua iani gimin Bengali mande Samuel Loveday minggipa jean Gauhatio contract ka·enggipa kristian mandeko grongkujana kingking gisiktango rakkiaha. Ian 1859 bilsio ong·achim jeon Loveday Gauhatio gilja ka·anio bakko ra·e uno kam ka·gipa pamong Kandura Smithko grongchina Omedko aganaha, indiba ua napbolnade sikjachimmongsongbate, bang·a a·brini manderangan, menil bitchi song·ako ringaniko watna sikjachim uandaken Omedba sikjachim.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-15-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="11" oldtitle="F.S. Downs, The Mighty Works of God: A Brief History of the Council of Baptist Churches in North East India: The Mission Period 1836-1950 (Gauhati: Christian Literature Centre, 1971), p48." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-11">15

Uchi, Goalpara schoolo napani ja·mano, Ramkeba Hindu (Sastras) Sastroko skie ra·na a·bachengaha aro Goalparao bol dal·gipa ja·pango donggipa Sadhurangko grongeaha. Ramke Sadhurangni sastroko pe·time on·anirangko nike namen namnikbeaha maina iarangni gimin ranta ka·anian bilsi 8 ba bilsi 9 mang ong·angpil·ahachim. Sadhuni ge·etani gita, a·bachengao aro bon·kamaoba “Ram” ine agananiko ua dakbaaha aro Brahminrangko mande ra·an baksa an·tangni choligijagipa man·aoniko cholgrigiparangna jakgitele on·rongaha. 1856 bilsini sin·kario Daccaoni Ram Jivan aro Rev. Ruprecht Bisonmang missionary dolrangni Goalparao sualgipa Kristian tract “Apatti Nashak"-ko man·e gisiko jajaatako man·kuja kingkingde ‘Ram’-an pilak sabisirangkoba namatgipa aro janggi tanganio chu·sokgijanirangkoba dingtangatgipa ong·a ine Ramke gisiko nangatbeako man·engachim.

Ia chongipa ki·tapko man·e Ramke aroba gisiko dongsiksakaha aro ka·donggija ong·taiaha. Indake ong·oba, Primary schoolni skigipa ong·e Rangjuliona re·bae ja 11 na skie on·engon adita uni gisikko dingtangatna man·aha. Unoniba ua Brahminni ku·pattianiko man·e Goalparaona re·bataiaha aro adita somairangna skie ra·angkuaha. Unon, Omed Ramkena an·tangni gitalgipa man·gimin Jisu Kristoni gimin chitti seataha. Jensalo school ka·aniko chutti watahaon Ramke kusi ong·bean baksa bakan Gauhationa re·ange uano bilsisana Normal schoolo naptaiaha.16 Unosa aiao inmanpil·gipa ki·tapni gimin jekon Omed sandie man·ahachim uarangni gimin aganaha. Bebeko aganode, uamang mamasara skangonin jringjrotna bebegipako am·giparang ong·achim aro sakgnian gisikni bidingo dingtangmanchagipa ong·achim aro uamangni gisikni gita maikoba man·ode uarangko sualgrike on·rongachim. Rang·sanan ia chong·motgipa agangrikani uamangni gisikko dingtangataha aro badiamancha Hindu ba Islam ba Kristian toromko ra·gen chanchiaha. Omed, sakgnioni dal·batgipa aro mamatang hisape indake aganaha:

“An·ching A·chik jatni mitde olakkiani kamrangde namen namchongmotjaenga. Hindu toromara jat baseaniko ranta ka·a. An·ching ua toromko ra·ode, an·ching an·chingni ma·drangrangoni chel·e dongna nanggnok. Iani gisepon, Ramayanaoba janggi jokatani gimin mamingba skiani dongja. Muslimrangni toromni Koran ki·tapo, beben Islam toromko ja·rikgiparangko dal·gipa jat dakgen ine Isolni ku·rachakani gnang; indiba manderangni janggini gamchatani giminde uko gamchataniko janapa dongja. Uni gimin, ia chongipa ki·taponi sandie nikgimin gita aro badiako ra·gen ba galgen tosusagrike nion, pilak toromrangna bateba ia Kristian toroman nambatgipa ong·a ine angade nika.” (Jaseng D. Marak, comp., History of Rajasimla Baptist Church, p2-3.)

Jensalo Kandura Smith, Omed aro Ramkeko niaha aro uamangni gisiko nanganiko nikaha, unon gipin bilsio re·bao Gauhationa Dr. Miles Bronsonni napbolatchina chittiko seatgen ine aganaha. Bon·kamao, skanggipa changna, 1863 bilsini February 8 tariko, Gauhatini Sukheswar Ghato napbolataha. Ua salo, bang·gija manderang chibimani rikamo chadenge napbolani somaio sakkiko on·aha aro Kristoni gimin ia skanggipa A·chik sakgnian ta·raken dangdike on·anio bak ma·pagen ine niksoaha.17 Ua salni attamchipak, skanggipa changna, ka·namgijagipa A·chik jatrangoni Gitelni Meattamko dakanio asongaha, aro Isolni Mes Bi·sa gita jean a·gilsakni paprangko ra·angaha, Una uamang damsan Uni bnekgimin be·enko aro jokgimin an·chiko ra·chengaha.18

Sukheswar Ghat 1863
Sukheswar Ghat 1863

A·chik A·songona Kristian Torom Sokbaa
Kristian toromko gital ong·e ra·chakani ja·mano, uamangni Garo skarangonaba iako ra·angna nangnikaha,<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-19-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="18" oldtitle="Milton S. Sangma, History of American Baptist Mission in N.E., India, p188." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-18">19 maina aiao inmanpil·gipa janggi jokgiminrang ine Garorangni gisepo mesokna sikaha. Ia kakket sikani baksa, Omed aro uni gritang Ramke, Dr. Miles Bronsonko gronge saoba missionary ong·e Garorangona re·ange Nama Kattako aganeode namgenchim ine agangrikaniko dakaha. Unomitingo Guwahatio gipin mande darangba dongjachim. Gritang Ramke un’ baksa bakrimna chanchioba, indiba Omedni jikgipa Epiri20 aro Ramkeni jikgipa Subande<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-21-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="20" oldtitle="Suboni B. Sangma was the wife of Ramke W. Momin from Amjonga. Her name was written as ‘Suban’ in Willam Carey’s book titled, The Garo Jungle Book, p71; A.G. Momin, “Omed the Saga of a Pioneer”, in Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, Rajasimla, p35; Interview with Rehunath K. Momin, Reverend of Rajasimla Baptist Church, May 13, 2013." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-20">21 napbolnaba aro Kristian ong·naba sikjaengachim. Indake ong·engon, Nowgongona re·ange dingtangmancha skie ra·aniko dakchina cholko on·oba Omedara uko daknaba jechakaha; maina ua bilsi briahachim.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-22-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="21" oldtitle="A.G. Momin, “Omed the Saga of a Pioneer”, in Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, Rajasimla, p34." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-21">22

Dr. Miles Bronson uamangni kattako jegaljaoba, iamangara sakgnian gitalpiti aro ka·namgijagipa biaprango dal·bea aganprakani kamko ka·nade skie on·ako man·giminrang ong·kuja ine gisikode watatna sikjaha. Omed-Ramke sakgnikon Guwahation donge gipin bilakgipa bebera·giparangoniko skie ra·kuchina didianiko dakahaoba uamang sikjachim. Bon·chotao, Dr. Miles Bronson uamangni mol·molaniko ra·chakaha aro bang·gija dormahako on·e dakchakna ku·rachakan baksa a·songtango donggipa jattang-mandetangna Nama Kattako aganechina watataha. Indake uamang 1864 bilsini March jao kamtangtangoni ong·kataha aro uamangni jikdrang-dedrang baksa 1864 bilsini May 10 tariko Gauhationi re·chakatbaaha. Re·baon Goalparani Deputy Commissioner Captain Mortanni nirok-simsakanio uamangko watataha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-23-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="22" oldtitle="“Beginning of Christianity in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya”, in ABDK Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, p4." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-22">23 Uamang Goalparaoni Damraona ja·tingtingchi re·bachengaha aro walsa waltue antidamo skanggipa changna aganprakaniko dakchengaha,24 unoni intalan Omed aro Ramke an·tangtangni jattangna aganprakgipa ong·baaha.

Nama Katta Baksa Wa·treparao Napchenga
Damrao dikdiksa neng·takmano, Omed aro Ramke uamangni song Wa·treparaona re·ongkataha. Jensalo uamang gital toromko ra·aniko ma·siahaon uamangko dingtange chanchichipaha indiba uamangni namgijanina songo donggiparangni gisikrang uamangko a·jak sokgija dongna on·kuaha. An·tangtangni manderangan ine uamangko u·ioba, uamangko a·songni bobilrang gita nikaha. Uamangni re·bapilani kattarang rang·sanan gimikchinan gipangaha, aro manderangni gisiko namen ka·onangani ching·chaa ong·kataha. Uamangni ma·drang-maharioniba mitamde kenaha aro dongchakna ba cha·aniko on·namangba pa·sokjaha. Indiba ia somaian uamangni ka·donganiko nina dakaniba ong·achim, aro uamang indaken an·pilgija tom·tom dongaha. Adita salrangnade, nok ge·saoni ge·gipinona re·roroe agane ramarangko tarisoaha, aro indaken kakketo dilaniko man·na bi·an’ baksa, nama kattako knatimchina songgimikni manderangko okamaha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-26-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="22" oldtitle="William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p84-85." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-22">26

Bang·bea manderang Nokpante26 sarani mikkango tom·dakaha aro jatchigrikgipa biapko bangbang done asongdultokaha. Songni dilgiparang mande ra·na kragipa biapo asongaha aro gipin dilgiparang samtangtangchi asongskaaha. Uamang uamangni mil·amrangko a·ao su·chaltokaha, maina ian jinma melaanio dakbewal ong·achim aro gipin songrangoni re·bagiparangba uno dongpaaha. Gimikan a·mango asong-bel·daktokaha, uamangni rongchinggipa mikgronrang mikskim ning·o nibamjile Omedni aganna chakatahaon, uko tongtong nitokaha. Ua somaian ka·dongbegipa ia mandeni u·iani ja·dilrangko jakkalani somai ong·aha, indiba agannasigipara uamangni ka·tong aro gisikni ramako u·ie indake aganaha:

“Garorangara mitderango bebera·a, indiba mitderang dongja. Jeko dakoba ba jedakeba an·chingko duk on·na bil man·gipa mitderang dongja. An·chingde Isolni kosako pap ka·aha. An·chingara maiko dakgen? Indiba Saksa gnang jean pilakkon an·chingna dakaha. Aro Ua an·chingko jokatna Uko watataha. Ua an·tangko an·chingni paprangni gimin boli on·aha, aro jean Uo bebera·a uamang jokatako man·gen. Ua siaoni tangchapil·aha, aro da·o Ua Isolni mikkango tange dongenga. Chinga, na·simangni jonggiparang, Ukon bebera·e chingni ka·tongrango katchaaniko man·aha. Mitde olakkianiko watgale Isolona an·pilode ia katchaania an·ching Garo gimiknan ong·a. Uni gimin, ia kattarangko chinga na·simangona ra·baa.”

Omedni ia kattarangko agana matchoton, rang·sanan jinmaoni chrike jikjakani ong·kataha aro ka·onangani ching·chae indake aganaha:

Mai, na·a A·chik, A·chik ma·gipao atchigipa, na·ara A·chik jat gimikna bate u·ibata ine an·tangko chanama, aro chinga nang·na bribatgiparangna skina u·ibata ine chanchiama? Mitderang bil dongja, saknaate siatna mitderango bil dongja ine jegale aro aganmike chingko tol·pnikna ianona re·bana na·a maikai ka·donga? Gisik rakbo, ong·jaode rang·gitik ong·ronggija obostarang nang·ni kosakona sokbagen. Chingade gokarang ong·ja! Sawa nang·ni toromna simsakgen, aro sawa uko ra·chakgen?28

Indiba Omed mamingnaba kengipa sipai ong·skajachim. Aro bang·beaoni mitamrang gnangchim, jensalo wa·al gita ching·chagiparangni ka·onange chrikanirang jripjang dakaha, aro mitam manderangoni chonnikjoljole re·bildangangtokon, mitamde agangrikna ine andalsimsim tom·dakgipaona sepangbaaha. Uamang gisiktangtango ru·uten chanchiaha, aro namnike, ‘kattade kakketan aro nambebea’ ine agantokaha. Indakesa, uamangni kam ka·ani a·bachengaha aro uamang maming gipinko dakjaode ia kakket ong·anio ka·donggiparang ine gamchakaniko mesokna man·jawachim. Bang·gija salrangni ja·mano Ramke, uni chonbatgipa jonggipa aro gipin sakgniko an·tangni schoolo poraichina ine Damraona re·bapilaha.

Obostarangko aro Ra·bianirangko Chagronga
Omed aro uni jikgipa Epiri uamangni manderangna kam ka·na ine Wa·treparaon dongrike adita jarangna neng·takgija Nama Kattako giproroataha. Indiba Omed aro uni nokni janggi tanganina altuade ong·jachim, maina songni manderang gital toromni gimin uamangni skianirangko namnikjachim. Samtangtango maiaba ong·ronggija ong·oba Omedan matnangako man·aiachim. Dingtang dingtang saanirang aro ong·telaigipa obostarang jedake marikki saani, okgitchak saani, mikka wagijani aro balmandurirang songo donggiparangna gimaaniko ra·baoba Omedni torom gitalko ra·baani a·sel mitderang ka·onangenga ine chanchitokaiaha. Salgni ba salgittamni gisepon, mitam manderang batrikrikgipa marikki saani gimin siangtokaha aro Omedni dedrangoniba saksade sisrangaha. Indake namjabegipa obostao, ua an·tangba sianiona galone kenatanirangkoba man·aha.

Ja·mano, manderangoni siangon, uamangni songo dongengani gimin aro uamangni bebera·jani gimin ia pilakan songni kosako bichal ong·enga ine chanchina a·bachengaha. Unon, iamangan mitderangni sao on·aniko ra·bagiparang ong·a ine ka·onanga ching·chae uamangko songoniko a·rik-galataha. Da·o Omed aro uni jik-dedrang janggi tanganina kenani dongaha aro ua songoni ong·katna nangaha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-29-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="27" oldtitle="“Beginnings of Christianity in the Garo hills of Meghalaya”, in ABDK Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, p5." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-27">29 Omed aro uni nokdang Koasi a·brini ja·pao donggipa dal·gipa bol ja·pango antigittamna kingking dongaha aro ua Rajasimla biapon songdongaha. Omed, ia biapon chiring chibima sambao, adita buringko o·prake wa·a aro am·pangchi chongipa nokko rikaha. Ian Rajasimlako re·pakgipa rama, nampagijagipa aro chonbegipa jamdapsan ong·aioba uano sikdikdik ong·e dongna nangaha.30 Ua salrango Rajasimla wilwilaon tilugrim aro changrogipa samsirangara ka·namgijagipa matburing jekai mapbilrang, wakburingrang, matchot aro balgitchakrangni dongramsa ong·aiachim. Walode dal·dalgipa matcharangan Omedni jamdap31 sepangona re·bae sepango donggipa dal·gipa bolo usintee/gowingwange rorongachim.

Walsao, Omedni nokdang uamangni jamdapo lamp so·e Isolo bi·engachim aro olakkiengachim, unon ka·namgijagipa sakdok32 Garo manderang nokgimikkon bon·kimitatsrangna ine Rajasimlaona re·bae re·baaha. Indiba lampni teng·aniko nike, kenjagokaha, chu·sokatna man·jaha aro so·otna miksonganiko dongale re·angpilaha.

Ong·gimin a·selrangni gisepo dal·batgipa mingsara, Omed aro uni adita manderang Koasi33 a·briona doange jeon achak bi·sarangko aro do·o-matrangko ra·ange boli on·ram biapko nosto ka·eani gimin ong·aha. Uamang tarigimin jang·kerangko ga·onruruaha, bangbanggipa kokchengrangko ga·pake galaha, ro·ongrangko pe·rurue galbatokaha. Uamang je bolrangan salakkimdapachim, uarangkoba den·e galbaaha aro tom·dakgimin chonchongipa wa·arangkoba den·e galtokaha. Adita salrangni ja·mano, A·chikrang bisningrangni bitipko nosto ka·ana ka·onanga gita songtangtangoni ong·kattokaha aro uamangko chagropna tariaha. Salsao antini salo, Omed aro gipinrang Rangjulio anti cha·engon, rang·sanan an·chi ringrakgipa ka·namjabatgipa matgrikrangoni, uamangko nike ka·onanga pagla gita ong·e so·otna chagrimaha. Iarangni gimin, Ramke Rangjuli policeni dilgipa captain Mortonna u·iataniko dakaha. Rang·sanan, captain Morton an·tang baksa sak sotbonga sipairangko rime Rangjuli antiona re·baaha. Unon ka·namgijagipa manderang police dolko nikon, British governmentnaba bamna nanganiko u·ie aro captain an·tangni kattako rakkigipaba ong·a ine u·iaha. Aroba, kenanirang namangkujana kingking policerangba Rangjulion dongkuaha. Adita salrang batangani ja·mano, rang·sanan mikka jimbe·e waaha aro ong·enggipa obostani gimin manderangni chanchie dongengon uamangna jagokaniko on·skaaha. Ja·mano, a·jak sokna chanchiani dontongaha aro Omedni gisiko chanchie kenaoni aro Rajasimlao donggipa uni manderangni kenaoniba jokataniko man·aha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-34-13998" target="_self" data-hasqtip="32" oldtitle="William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p91-92." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-32">34

Uan 1866 bilsio ong·achim, jeon Rangkuba<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-35-10578" target="_self" data-hasqtip="35" oldtitle="See, E.G. Phillips, “Historical Sketch of the Garo Field”, in The Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union: Papers and Discussions of Jubilee Conference, December 18-29, 1886 (Calcutta: Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union, 1887), p56; Melkior Ch. Sangma, in Chimik, Volume 6, No.8. June, 2013 (Tura: n.p., 2013), p11." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-35">35 ua somaio Dr. Miles Bronson baksa Nowgongo dongengachim maina ua 1866 bilsini April 8 tariko Dr. Miles Bronsonni jakchin napbolatako man·e Garorangoni gittamgipa Kristian ong·chengaha. Ramke mamatang Omed baksa Rajasimlao dongengon, uno donggipa Kristian nokdangrangko a·brini Garorang mangmikatna chanchiaha ine Dr. Miles Bronsonna chittiko seataha. Ua Ramkeni chittiko man·soe, maikai uni perango mikgrononi mikchirang so·olbaaha uko Rangkuba nikaha aro una agane inaha, “Na·a re·ange uamangko dakchakena nanga.” Rangku aganchake inaha, “maibakai uamang angko so·otode?” Dr. Miles Bronson aganchakaha, “Na·a re·angaibo, Isolan nang·na simsakaigen.” Dr. Miles Bronson uko salam ka·e, “Isol nang’ baksa dongchina. Haida golmal namsonaba dongaha. Jedakeba ong·china, na·a re·angbo aro ka·dongbo” agane watataha. Ua walgimikan ringko sandiaha. Salgnini ja·mano, Rangku Goalparaona sokeaha. Ua uni ba·ra-kancharangko dongale ja·achi re·baon attam sal napango Rajasimlaona sokeaha. Omed aro Ramke uko niksona kusi ong·beaha aro ia dal·begipa kenani somaio uni dakchakaniko nangnike rimchaksoaha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-36-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="33" oldtitle="William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p97-98." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-33">36

Omed aro uni ka·rimskarang dal·begipa jajrengaoni jokahaoba, uamangni janggirangna kenanide ong·aha ine u·iaha. Uamang Rajasimlaona re·angpiloba, sal-wal tusigija mikgrake dongna nangaha. An·tangtangni nok jamdaprangni samtangtango bawile wa·alrangko so·e donaha aro salgittam-walgittamna kingking tusigija dongtimaha. Omed an·tangba aro gipinrangni jangginaba dal·bea kenaniko ra·baaha ine namen duk ong·beaha. Indake kenbegnigipa somairangko chagrongoba, Omed aro uni nokdangni manderangko aro gipinrangko mamingba dakjaha. Iarangni gisepo nok jamdapni37 sepangjolo walni bako ka·namgijagipa matburingrang re·bae usintee ba gowingwange rorongachim ine mesokna gita da·ode gisik ra·ani bimangkoba tarie donaha. Ia biapan sepangjolo donggipa manderangni Rangjuli antiko cha·na re·pakronggipa ramaba ong·achim.

Ia manderang iakon gisiko done, Omed an·tangni chongipa jamdapona okame ‘dikdiksa neng·take gue-pan cha·angbo aro sada-ta·makku ringangkubo’ ine aganrongaha aro ian “Omedni Okamram Nok” ong·baaha.

Unon, ua ia cholrangko ra·e sokbana kragijagipa manderangna Kristoni Nama Kattako aganprakaha. Unikoa, ka·sine indiba mangrakbatroroe, Omed uni gamani biterangko rana a·bachengaha. Omedni ‘gitalgipa bebera·ani’ gimin saksani ja·mano saksa dake songrangoni bebera·na a·bachengaha. Indaken, Omed manderangna Nama Kattako aganna jotton ka·anio bang·a rakgipa obostarangko aro dake nianirangko chagrongaha. Garorangara Omedni somaiona kingkingan ka·ting-ka·grak dakaigipa aro an·chi ringrakgipa songdonggiparang ong·kuaiengachim, indiba Gisik Rongtalgipani bil uona re·baaha aro pangnan bi·aniko dakchina uko de·mesarongaha. Jedake Gisik Rongtalgipa uko kenbegnigipa obostarango cheaniko man·na bi·china dilaha, indaken ua da·o gisik ra·na cementchi tarie dongipa biap ‘bolchu ja·pangona’ re·bae bi·rongaha. Ua biapara Omedni jamdaponi on·titisan chel·aiachim aro unon Omed ja·sku dipane salo changgittam pangnan Isolo bi·rongaha:

Ja·mano je biapo Omed bi·rongachim uko “Omedni Bi·ram Biap” ine mingsingbana a·bachengaha. Ia gisiko dal·begipa nikjagringani aro chanchiani baksa, Omed namen dukko chakbeaha indiba uni on·kange aro kakket ong·e kam ka·anichi ia biapara A·chik a·songni biterangko raram biaprangoni damsa ong·baaha aro indaken Isolni Songnokko apalbatatna man·roroaha.

Skanggipa Garo Mondoliko Rajasimlao Songchenga
Omedni kam ka·ani bimchipa a·sel, bilsisani gisepon saksani ja·mano saksa dake ka·sine ka·sine chu·sokbaroroaha aro mandetangrangoni saksnimang uamangni kamrangko wate un’ baksa bakrimaha. Uamang mitde olakkianiko watgalaha aro gital toromko skie ra·na a·bachengskaaha. Uano dongmitingo kragija dakanirang aro kenbegni obostarang dongoba Rajasimlao bebera·giparang jelrorobaaha. 1866 bilsini bon·angachibara, Omed 'Rajasimlao olakkianiona pangnan adita sak manderang re·barongenga aro uamangoni bang·an napbolna sikenga,' ine Dr. Miles Bronsonna chitti seataha. Dr. Bronson, mile 200 mang chel·gipa biaposa dongan baksana una seatgipa kattakoba ong·na krae nikatjaengachim, indiba darangba dongade dongskajachim. Uni gisiko nanganiko batatna gita dingtang dingtang songrangoni sakchet A·chikrang gipin chittiko see uno soi ka·e on·atanikoba Dr. Miles Bronson man·sotaiaha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-39-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="36" oldtitle="K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya, p32." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-36">39 Soi ka·gipa manderang indake chittiko seataha:

Signed Letter

Dr. Miles Bronson gita dakgipa mandeni gisikna indakgipa chittiara ran·gipa bostuo wal·misi ma·baka gita ong·aha. Uan uni gisikko ching·chaataha. Dr. Miles Bronson indakgipa cholko gimaatna sikjaha aro bon·kamao Rajasimlaona re·bana ua chanchiaha. Ua agandapaha, ‘Anga Gitelni kamko ka·anio katchabee, chasongnan simsakgija galchipa man·gimin jatrangko Kristian ong·aniona ra·bana wa·al so·bakchengaha aro a·songtango mande ra·ako man·e dongana bate ia Kristian ong·atna man·anian kusi ong·batani ong·a.’ Ua 1867 bilsini April 12 tariko, captain Campbellni mongma manggnio gakate Goalparaona re·angchengaha. Ia songreaniara bakrobea aro gisikni gitade namen aratatachim indiba Rajasimlaona re·baanian uni janggi tanganio kusi ong·batsranggipa aro aiao inmanani ong·aha. Sal ding·ao salgimik songrea aro a·dimurarasachim, indiba ua Damraona attamni 5 baji sokeaha, uano Ramke baksa agangrikna man·aha, uamang ru·uten golpoaha aro tuani somai ong·kujana kingking gitrangkoba ring·e dongaha aro salgipino pringni re·chakate Rajasimlaona attamchipak sokeaha.<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-40-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="37" oldtitle="William carrey, The Garo Jungle Book, p102." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-37">40 Attamo, uamangni olakkina ine gital rikgimin gilja noko bi·rimaniko dakdilaha aro sak 26 manderangko sing·e aganaha, ‘Kristian ong·ahaon a·rikani, saia-inani, warachaka, haida so·otanirang ong·naba donga.’ Iarang pilakan ong·gen ine chinga u·isoa ine uamang aganchake inaha, “Oe, iarang pilakni gimin chinga chanchimanaha; chingko warachakgipa donggen ine chinga u·isoa; chinga Kristoni sninggiparang ong·na chanchimanaha aro napbola man·na chanchiaha.”

Robibal Sal, 14th: Salrangoni Salsa!
Pringo pringni olakkianiko dakaha aro 10:00am bajioba olakkianiko ong·ataha. Uni ja·mano Dr. Miles Bronson nitobegipa “Rongkil” chibima jekon napbolatna ine nitobee kapegipaona ong·onangaha aro uano sak kolgrikdok Garo me·asa aro me·chikrangko napbolataha. Mikmalgijagipa, ka·namgijagipa manderang jinma tom·dake chibimani dramo chadenge nitokaha, indiba gimikan jripjrip, aro tom·tome mandera·a gnange nitokaha. Kristoni nolona chimongchenggipa Garorangni gisepo bilsi brigiminrang, bijatchi jolni manderang aro chadamberang ong·achim. Iamangoni bang·an, bang·gija salrangna skang mangmangsa Omedmangko toromni gimin warachakgiparang ong·achim.

Uamangoni Dr. Miles Bronsonko gisiko nangatgipara indake aganaha, “Angaba Kristoni sninggipa, indiba angara re·na amja. Angara maikai napbolna man·ginok?” Unon, Dr. Miles Bronson Omedko agane uko an·tangni chadenge dongenggipa chibimaona rimbachina aganaha. Ia mande,<a href="#easy-footnote-bottom-41-9849" target="_self" data-hasqtip="38" oldtitle="was right-hand man to Omed. About three months ago, he was unable to walk from a diseased foot. He had learned to read and write in the Goverment school at Goalpara, and speaks Assamese well. He is a mountain Garo and one of the first to leave off opposition and join Omed. His name was Ramsing Momin. See, “Letter from Dr. Miles Bronson”, in The Mission Magazine, Volume 47. No.11, 1867 (Boston: American Baptist Missionary Union, 1867), p446; William carey, The Garo Jungle Book (New Delhi: Tura Book Room, 1993), p102; K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya (Gauhati: Christian Literature Centre, 1978), p33." title="" aria-describedby="qtip-38">41 jensalo maiaba a·gilsakni man·dapanirangko man·ode inon indake aganchakaha: “Ong·ja; chingni Kristian ong·ara an·tangtang okko gapatna ba okkagninasama? Chingni nangnikan janggi joknasa ong·a.” Changgipino ua indake aganaha: “Ang’ ka·tong, ia toromni gimin a·brio donggipa angni manderangna re·e aganna sikani dongtojaenga. Angni ja·a mangmang re·na man·ode, anga re·anggen.”

Sombal Sal, April 15, 1867
Dr. Miles Bronson Rajasimlako wate re·angna tariahachim aro olakkiram jamdapona manderangko napate adita kattarangko aganne on·na napangaha unon Omed gipin sak chikking songni manderangba an·tangtangko Kristoni sninggiparang ine chapatako man·gijade re·angatna sikjaenga ine una aganaha. Dr. Miles Bronson uamangko dakdilna somai dongjae joljolan chibimaona rimange Rev. Omed W. Momin baksa sak chikkingkon bodolgrike napbolataha. Iachin Garorangoni songtangni jakchi napbolataba aro angni jakchi napbolatako apsan ong·aia ine Dr. Miles Bronson aganaha. Rev. Omed W. Momin napbolatani kattarangko Garo ku·sikchi dakaha aro uara Assamesechi dakskaaha. Indake, ua song damsao Kristian ong·chenggipa sakgittamkoba man·chape, gimik sak sotbriko chane gitalgipa Mondoli a·bachengaha. Unon, Isol iarang pilakko Rev. Omed W. Momin aro Ramke W. Momin mangni ka·tongo donaha aro an·tangmang manderangona re·ange skie on·echina watataha. Dr. Miles Bronson indake agana:

“Anga uamangni dakna skaniko nikaha. Anga Isolni jakko ia kamo nikaha aro angni jako tangka dongjaoba, ango tangka dongja ine aganani ong·jaha aro agannan ka·dongjaha. Anga iakosan aganna man·aia, “Ian Gitelni kam aro an·chingni mikgronrangchi ia dal·begipa aiao inmanani kamrangko nikna man·aha.”
(—Dr. Miles Bronson)


  1. Rehunath K. Momin, Rehunath K. Momin, “The Hut at the Foot of the Pass,” in History of Rajasimla Baptist Church, p5.
  2. Lindrind D. Shira, A·chik A·songona Nama Katta Sokbaani,” First Edition: Tura, n.p., 1991, p87.
  3. K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya (Gauhati: Christian Literature Center, 1978), p24.
  4. Watrepara was a village of Omed and Ramke which was six and a half kilometers far away from Rajasimla village. This small village was located at the side east-western part of the hill range.
  5. Jaseng D. Marak, comp., History of Rajasimla Baptist Church in Garo Hills, edited by Rev. Janang R. Sangma (Rajasimla: Souvenir Committee, 2012), p1.
  6. Medistar K. Momin, “The Contribution of Omed W. Momin,” The First Garo Convert in the Establishment of the Garo Baptist Church, p6.
  7. M. S. Sangma, History of American Baptist Mission in North-East India, p188-189.
  8. L. D. Shira, “God’s Plan of Salvation to the Garos,” in ABDK Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, 1875-2000. p14.
  9. E.G. Phillips, “Historical Sketch of the Garo Field,” in The Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union: Papers and Discussions of Jubilee Conference, December 18-19, 1886 (Calcutta: Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union, 1887), p54.
  10. “Beginnings of Christianity in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya,” in ABDK Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, p3.
  11. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p56.
  12. Milton S. Sangma, “Advent of Christianity into Garo Hills,” in Rajasimla Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, 1867-1992, p3.
  13. “Apati Nashak” means ‘The Destroyer of Objections.’ It explained about the Christian faith and disposed of different objections to its acceptance.
  14. K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya, p27.
  15. F.S. Downs, The Mighty Works of God: A Brief History of the Council of Baptist Churches in North-East India: The Mission Period 1836-1950 (Gauhati: Christian Literature Centre, 1971), p48.
  16. Milton S. Sangma, “Advent of Christianity into Garo Hills”, p3.
  17. F.S. Downs, The Mighty Works of God, 50. This baptismal report was sent by Dr. Miles Bronson on February 13, 1863, from Gauhati to American Baptist Mission Board, and his report was published in the titled, in The Missionary Magazine, Vol. 43, August 1863, No. 8. p300-303.
  18. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p80.
  19. Milton S. Sangma, History of American Baptist Mission in N.E., India, p188.
  20. Epiri was the wife of Omed W. Momin. Actually, she was not from the Garo tribe but from the Kachari tribe of Assam. She got married to Omed while he was in a sepoy at Gauhati. Later on, she became Garo and took the Garo clan’s title as ‘Epiri D. Marak.’
  21. Suboni B. Sangma was the wife of Ramke W. Momin from Amjonga. Her name was written as ‘Suban’ in William Carey’s Book title, The Garo Jungle Book, p71; A.G. Momin, “Omed the Saga of a Pioneer,” in Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, Rajasimla, p35; Interview with Rehunath K. Momin, Reverend of Rajasimla Baptist Church on May 13, 2013.
  22. A.G. Momin, “Omed the Saga of a Pioneer,” in Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, Rajasimla, p34.
  23. “Beginning of Christianity in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya”, in ABDK Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, p4.
  24. Milton S. Sangma, “Advent of Christianity into Garo Hills”, p5.
  25. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p84-85.
  26. “Nokpante” means a bachelor-house that was built in the middle place of the village where young boys stay together. In this bachelor-house, youngsters slept, played, learned the indigenous arts and cultures together.
  27. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p85-86.
  28. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p86.
  29. “Beginnings of Christianity in the Garo hills of Meghalaya”, in ABDK Quasqui Centenary Souvenir, p5.
  30. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p87.
  31. Omed’s hut first was made from bamboo and with grasses. At present, it was coated with cement. There, he called the people for a little rest with a slice of betel nut and a puff of tobacco smoking’.
  32. These six ‘murderous’ people came down to Rajasimla to wipe out Omed’s family. They were from Wa·trepara namely: Deasing, Achallang, Chella Asanpa, Bikgarangpa, Kallu, and Maru. During those days, they were furious and popularly well-known as ‘matgrik’ or warriors.
  33. “Koasi” hill was situated at the eastward of Rajasimla village. There was a litter of sacrificial rely on that lays all about–egg-shells, feathers, tufts of bamboo, blood and the worship of this demon dominates the country round. In this hill, there was no mere godling of the valley or sprite of wood and the stream, but the powerful devil whose voice is thunder, whose tread shakes the earth. At certain seasons there was a constant succession of pilgrims toiling up. The trees on the summit are sacred, and sacred stones lie at their roots, which have been watered with blood. See, William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p90.
  34. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p91-92.
  35. See, E.G. Phillips, “Historical Sketch of the Garo Field”, in The Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union: Papers and Discussions of Jubilee Conference, December 18-29, 1886 (Calcutta: Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union, 1887), p56; Melkior Ch. Sangma, in Chimik, Volume 6, No.8. June 2013 (Tura: n.p., 2013), p11.
  36. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p97-98.
  37. This monument’s name was written as “Matcha Duru Weram” or “The swinging grove of Tigers” which means big cats (tigers) were coming down at night and swing and prowl at the big tree at night. At present, it has been erected with cement.
  38. Interview with Livingstone M. Sangma, Deacon of Rajasimla Baptist Church, 9 May 2013.
  39. K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya, p32.
  40. William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book, p102.
  41. He was the right-hand man to Omed. About three months ago, he was unable to walk from a diseased foot. He had learned to read and write in the Government school at Goalpara and speaks Assamese well. He is a mountain Garo and one of the first to leave off the opposition and join Omed. His name was Ramsing Momin. See, “Letter from Dr. Miles Bronson”, in The Mission Magazine, Volume 47. No.11, 1867 (Boston: American Baptist Missionary Union, 1867), p446; William Carey, The Garo Jungle Book (New Delhi: Tura Book Room, 1993), p102; K.I. Aier, The Growth of Baptist Churches in Meghalaya (Gauhati: Christian Literature Centre, 1978), p33.